I periodically review news releases on probiotics. For example Sjögren Syndrome has a distinctive shift of bacteria. There is a lot of research going on and knowledge increases often.
Bacteria that make brain chemicals[article]
Type of bacteria
|Bifido-bacterium||Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)|
Source: T.G. Dinan et al/J. Psych. Res. 2015
- Altered Mucosal Microbiome Diversity and Disease Severity in Sjögren Syndrome..Stool from SS subjects had greater relative abundances of Pseudobutyrivibrio, Escherichia/Shigella, Blautia, andStreptococcus, while relative abundance of Bacteroides, Parabacteroides,Faecalibacterium, and Prevotella was reduced compared to controls. The severity of SS ocular and systemic disease was inversely correlated with microbial diversity. These findings suggest that SS is marked by a dysbiotic intestinal microbiome driven by low relative abundance of commensal bacteria and high relative abundance of potentially pathogenic genera that is associated with worse ocular mucosal disease in a mouse model of SS and in SS patients.” [article]. This often is co-morbid to CFS/FM.
- “antibiotic-induced gut microbiota disturbance can impair novel object recognition in mice.”  “Antibiotic treatment strongly disrupted and diminished the microbial community in the colon of antibiotic-treated mice. Also, microbial metabolite levels were markedly decreased in the colonic luminal contents of antibiotic-treated mice. Particularly, the colonic levels of the short-chain fatty acids acetate, butyrate and propionate as well as of trimethylamine, adenine and uracil were significantly diminished by antibiotic treatment.Circulating metabolite levels were also markedly altered by antibiotic treatment.”
- “a team led by researchers at Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China, have found that the severity of dandruff is linked to the composition of those microbes-in particular, bacteria-offering potential opportunities for treatment.” 
- “The Spanish firm Biosearch Life has filed for a health claim linking a probiotic strain with the reduced risk of painful inflammation of the breast during breastfeeding.”
- “MESSAGE RECEIVED A microbe called Bacteroides fragilis (left image, boxed) sends out messages that calm the immune system, quelling inflammation in mouse intestinal cells (left, bottom half). These messages rest in pouches called outer membrane vesicles (yellow bubbles in reconstruction of microbe at right). Defective genes linked to Crohn’s disease might make it hard for people to get such messages.”
- “Autoimmune disease in children could be caused by gut bacteria that inhibit immune development. Surface lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is made by microbes such as Escherichia coli and helps immune cells to mature.” 
- “Heat-killed Pediococcus pentosaceus LP28 derived from the longan fruit may help trim waist lines and reduce body fat, say results from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.” 
- “Researchers at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Heidelberg, Germany, and their colleagues sequenced the DNA of bacterial strains in patients with metabolic syndrome who each received an FMT, finding that donor strains persisted in the recipients’ guts for up to three months following the procedure…
Bork also noted that new strains of bacteria transferred more easily than new species….Rather, the success of the transplant appears to depend on the compatibility between the donor and the recipient.
”  – FMT does not make a permanent change, it gives an opportunity for normalization; this may be why FMT does not work always for CFS.
- “The United States Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) regulation of products containing probiotics is complex and largely depends on the claims that are made for the product. For example, they can be regulated as foods, dietary supplements, cosmetics, or drugs/biologics. This article is the first of a four part series about the regulation of probiotics in the USA, and we start with foods.” [article]
- “Intestinal bacteria play a key role in causing and preventing obesity and neurodegeneration and a study has suggested they could also reduce cancer risk.” [article]
- Mouth Bacteria
- “The mix of bacteria living in the oral cavity is related to a person’s risk of developing pancreatic cancer, according to a study…”We found that Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, two species of bacteria linked to periodontal disease, were associated with a more than 50 percent increased risk of pancreatic cancer,” [Apr 2016] I suspect this may also apply to FM and CFS!
- “In the journal Medicine comparing patients on dialysis who received periodontal treatment with those who did not. Those getting treatment had an almost 30 percent lower risk of pneumonia and hospitalization from infections. Another study published earlier this year found that gum disease is associated with a roughly 10 percent higher mortality over 10 years among patients with kidney problems…Cognitive decline among Alzheimer’s patients with gum disease versus those with healthy gums 2.5 times greater” [article]
- “One study concluded that L.Reuteri reduced both gingivitis and plaque in patients with moderate to severe gingivits in 14 days. …in another study no significant difference [article]
- “Unexpected phage-bacteria interactions in a simplified murine gut environment Lately gut microbiota scientists have been paying more attention to phages-bacterial viruses-in the gut environment, to uncover how they interact with bacteria to affect activities in the gut.”[article]