This is my periodic review of recent news dealing with probiotics.
- “Any two humans typically differ by about 1 in 1,000 DNA bases, whereas bacteria of the same species may differ by as many as 250 in 1,000, Snyder said. “I don’t think people realized just how much diversity there was. The complexity we found was astounding,” he said….”For example, many strains of E. coli bacteria live harmlessly and even helpfully in the human gut, while others are lethal. Being able to tell one strain from another could help researchers determine which strains are dangerous and why.”  – Reinforces the need to work at the strain level.
- “Resistant starch (RS) type 2 is present in cereals, tubers, legumes, and fruits . In animal models, consumption of RS improves gut integrity and absorption of nutrients and reduces T cell infiltration of the mucosa [5–7]. In humans, the consumption of RS changes the composition of the microbiota and promotes the microbial fermentative production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which putatively reduce gastrointestinal inflammation [8–10]. RS also improves symptoms and reduces pathology in inflammatory bowel disease . In addition, RS meets the criteria for safety, durability, and availability as a dietary intervention to reduce environmental enteric dysfunction (Subclinical, chronic gut inflammation) EED.”
- “effects were lasting, since the overall recovery of the microbial mass, bacterial diversity and concentrations were still below pre-antibiotic values 4 months after the end of antibiotic treatment.” 
- Lactobacullus plantarum 299V increases iron uptake  This STRAIN is available from Jarrow and is sold on Amazon.
- “Increased intakes of fermented foods like kimchi and beer are associated with significantly reduced risks of atopic dermatitis (eczema), says a new study from Korea… 44% lower prevalence…” 
- “The potential for the gut microbiota to affect health has a particular relevance for older individuals. This is because the microbiota may modulate aging-related changes in innate immunity, sarcopaenia, and cognitive function, all of which are elements of frailty. Both cell culture–dependent and –independent studies show that the gut microbiota of older people differs from that of younger adults. There is no chronological threshold or age at which the composition of the microbiota suddenly alters; rather, changes occur gradually with time. Our detailed analyses have separated the microbiota into groups associated with age, long-term residential care, habitual diet, and degree of retention of a core microbiome. We are beginning to understand how these groups change with aging and how they relate to clinical phenotypes. These data provide a framework for analyzing microbiota-health associations, distinguishing correlation from causation, identifying microbiota interaction with physiological aging processes, and developing microbiota-based health surveillance for older adults.” 
- “Overall, the present study emphasizes the need to disentangle gut microbiota signatures of specific human diseases from those of medication.” – i.e. not controlling for medications being taken can result in suspect results.
- “The researchers observed that commensal E. coli are no longer proliferating 20 minutes after an animal eats, and that the bacteria produce a different suite of proteins than during mealtimes. Giving these proteins to rodents caused the release of peptide YY, which signals fullness, and caused the animals to eat less.”
- “Here, we show that the human microbiome reacts differently to a high-protein, high-fat Western diet than that of a model primate, the African green monkey, or vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus). Specifically, humans exhibit increased relative abundance of Firmicutes and reduced relative abundance of Prevotella on a Western diet while vervets show the opposite pattern. Predictive metagenomics demonstrate an increased relative abundance of genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism in the microbiome of only humans consuming a Western diet….the role of animal models for understanding the relationship between the human gut microbiota and host metabolism must be re-focused.” 
- “we continuously monitored week-long glucose levels in an 800-person cohort, measured responses to 46,898 meals, and found high variability in the response to identical meals, suggesting that universal dietary recommendations may have limited utility. We devised a machine-learning algorithm that integrates blood parameters, dietary habits, anthropometrics, physical activity, and gut microbiota measured in this cohort and showed that it accurately predicts personalized postprandial glycemic response to real-life meals.” 
The picture below summarized the last item — the “goodness” or “badness” of a food is very individual and gut bacteria is a significant factor.