uBiome from a Hep Triggered CFS patient

Another uBiome result, as with other patients, low or no bifidobacterium and lactobacillus. Similar to most other patients, biodiversity was very high, 97%ile, with the usual many families at a very low (0.01 or 0.02) (trace) level compared to controls with the same families.

bb

Again, many rare ones show up

rare

Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio was low 1.1: 1 instead of the normal 2.1:1. (about 1/3 have low ratios so far, and 2/3 have high ratios).

  • Akkermansia level is high (6.83) -seen in about 25% of the uBiome, the other 75% are low.
    • This subset of high patients also tend to be high in:
      • Alistipes, Bilophila, Intestinibacter,  Oscillospira, Intestinimonas,  Butyricimonas
      • This hints that 7 genus may be mutually beneficial to each other.

Notes on person: hepatitis triggered CFS over 20 years ago. Currently not doing any protocol.

The Low Amount of Abundance Bacteria Genus

I have been recording the relative percentage (compare to controls) of different uBiome that I have reviewed. I took the numbers at the Genus (lowest) level, counted and plotted them.

spread

The expectation for a normal group of patients would be a bell/Normal-curve with the top of the bell being at 100. With CFS patients we find a large number of genus with a very low level compare to control.  In other words we have high biodiversity but it is very fragmented and made up of nominal populations. If the tests being applied to the microbiome was less sensitive than uBiomes, then a result of low biodiversity could be reported on the same sample because all of the trace, 10%, 20% may not be recorded.

Bottom Line

My best suggestion (especially since information on reducing Alistipes, Bilophila, Intestinibacter,  Oscillospira, Intestinimonas,  Butyricimonas is almost non-existent) is to discuss with their medical professionals the items on my “Cookbook Summary for the Brain Fogged“. The items are linked (eventually) back to the PubMed studies that provided dosage information.

 

uBiome with bioscreen results and an unwelcomed surprise

Another reader shared their uBiome results with bioscreen results (done the old fashion was of culturing bacteria). First thing is the classic “where’s the bifo and lacto!!” result seen with CFS/

cat

Looking at: Firmicute to Bacteriodetes ratio: 3.8 (double the typical ratio of 2.1), the volume of Bacteriodetes was the cause of the shift (50% of typical).

Over on Bioscreen, we see the rest of the normal story for CFS patients: Zero E.Coli and overgrowth (remember this is cultured, so only a few results will be shown — most gut bacteria cannot be cultured).

catl

Going back to the uBiome results — we again see a fair number of rare bacteria appearing. There is no clear pattern beyond “a lot of rare ones appear”. For example, this is the first sample showing any of the Spirochaetia Phylum (The TOP level of bacteria tree). This family includes Borrelia burgdorferiB. garinii, and B. afzelii, which cause Lyme disease.

cat3

Drill Down

Phylum Level

  • Lentisphaerae was 19.21x the average where as most CFS patients have zero
  • Tenericutes was 4.31x the average where as most CFS patients have zero

Class Level

  • Mollicutes (under Tenericutes) was 4.30x the average where as most CFS patients have zero. The best-known genus in the Mollicutes is Mycoplasma.

Order

Family

  • Victivallaceae (under Lentisphaerae) was 20.17x the average where as most CFS patients have zero

Genus

  • Victivallis (under Lentisphaerae) was 20.32x the average where as most CFS patients have none

Bottom Line

There was two major surprises in this uBiome — beyond seeing the usual CFS pattern:

  • Overgrowth of the class that contains mycoplasma – Mollicutes 
  • Overgrowth of the phylum that contains lyme bacteria – Spirochaetia

I do not know if one or the other have been tested for. The prescription antibiotics for both of these classes also overlap the generic CFS antibiotics and would likely reduce the overgrowth. My own preference (for myself), would be [with regular rotation]:

  • Tetracyclines: for example:
    • Doxycycline
    • Chlortetracycline.
    • Clomocycline.
    • Demeclocycline.
    • Lymecycline.
    • Meclocycline.
    • Metacycline.
    • Minocycline.
  • Macrolides:
    • azithromycin (brand name Zithromax),
    • clarithromycin (brand names Klacid and Klacid LA),
    • erythromycin (brand names Erymax, Erythrocin, Erythroped and Erythroped A),
    • spiramycin (no brand), and.
    • telithromycin (brand name Ketek).

Normally, lyme and mycoplasma are done by blood tests. If their “first cousins” and thriving in your gut, then the metabolites that they produce may be similar to those produce by lyme and mycoplasma — producing similar symptoms.

The lab results concluded “mild neutropenia” – WebMD cites for this condition

  • “Antibiotics for bacterial infections, if the underlying cause is an infection”
    • There appears evidence from the uBiome that there are atypical gut infections.

Again, this is not medical advise — just inferences from the data and the model that I am using. These inferences should be discussed with your knowledgeable medical professionals.

I will add to my backlog posts looking for herbs/spices etc that have been demonstrated effective for these two abnormalities.

 

Ubiome result after recent Ross River Virus

A reader was very kind to share with me their uBiome results. Ross River Virus is an infection (one of many) associated with the subsequent development of CFS. In March 2017, the reader was positive for Ross River Virus (6 months after symptoms started). We have someone in possible early CFS (less than 1 year from onset).

Does the ubiome fit the CFS Pattern?

rr1

  • Low Bifidobacterium – Check
  • Low Lactobacillus – Check
  • Akkermansia is very high: 8.27x.
    • This is the bacteria that reduces inflammation. This may be a response to this being a recent infection/onset (the very low level seen later in most CFS patients, could be a result of ‘exhaustion’, i.e. the metabolites that this bacteria needs were badly depleted).
    • One earlier result had higher values
  • Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio: 0.45 (both high and low ratios are seen)
    • Bacteroidetes: 1.33x
    • Firmicutes: 0.6x

Looking at some prior uBiomes from prior posts:  B and F uBiomes are vary similar with shared spikes in the same groups (not seen with other CFS uBiome results):

  • High Genus: Odoribacter, Parabacteroides, Sarcina, Intestinibacter, Allermansia
  • High Family: Peptostreptococcaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Clostridiaceae 

New (not seen in others)

  • Class: Opitutae, Order: Puniceicoccalea, Genus: Butyricicoccus,

From Lab Reports

  • “Most essential and other elements are very low, suspected malabsorption issue. About half are below 16th percentile: calcium, magnesium, sodium, copper, manganese, lithium, phosphorus, strontium, cobalt, iron, zirconium.”
  • “Main symptom is fatigue. I can work on my computer from home 4 hours a day, … can walk comfortably in total in and around home about 1-1.5km in steps a day, 2km feels like a marathon. Wish I could sleep more, feel terrible in the mornings. Lately I’ve been feeling nauseous on and off. I need to rest regularly throughout the day. No pain thankfully, occasional headaches.”

Items to Discuss with Your Professional(s)

The nausea(and IBS) aspect is where I would start, and in that direction, I would suggest taking herbs and probiotics documented to work in this area. The goal is to adjust the gut while the dysbiosis is still fresh (and less stable). My short list would be:

  • Probiotics:
  • Herbs and Spices
  • Magnesium Malate
  • Consider Folinic Acid (the bioactive form of Folate), it may be more effective in the face of mal-absorption.

Bottom Line

You appear to match the uBiome of a subset of CFS patients. I recall from studies that lab tests for CFS start changing about 2 years after onset (the likely cause is cumulative mal-absorption). Given that it appears to be less than a year since you developed symptoms, there is a reasonable chance (likely 20-40%) that you may go into spontaneous remission over the next year. I believe that the above items will increase your odds.

If you can get Vitamin 1,25D measured, it will likely be very high (and should drop as you move towards remission). This is from my own personal experience and just 1 or 2 studies hinting at this.

 

 

Gluten sensitivity and the microbiome

There is evidence suggesting that both lactose and gluten sensitivity may be the result of shifts in the microbiome. In this post I will explore gluten intolerance.

  • “The Mayo Clinic reports that intestinal problems such as lactose intolerance  may be present long after the parasites are gone.”[src]

Pub Med Studies

  • A commensal Bifidobacterium longum strain improves gluten-related immunopathology in mice through expression of a serine protease inhibitor [2017].
  • “114 bacterial strains belonging to 32 species were isolated; 85 strains were able to grow in a medium containing gluten as the sole nitrogen source, 31 strains showed extracellular proteolytic activity against gluten protein and 27 strains showed peptidolytic activity towards the 33 mer peptide, an immunogenic peptide for celiac disease patients. ” [2017]
  • Significantly higher faecal counts of the yeasts candida and saccharomyces identified in people with coeliac disease [2017].
    • Candida sp. was detected in 33% of the CoeD group compared 0% of the control group (p = 0.000) and Saccharomyces sp. was detected in 33% of the CoeD group compared to 10% of the control group (p = 0.026).”
  • Dysbiosis a risk factor for celiac disease. [2017]
  • Changes in duodenal tissue-associated microbiota following hookworm infection and consecutivegluten challenges in humans with coeliac disease [2016].
    • ” Bacteroidia and Flavobacteriia (class) and Bacteroidales and Flavobacteriales (order) displayed a trend towards increased abundance in Trial subjects “
    • “Together, these data suggest that helminth infections and gluten exposure can significantly alter the composition of the tissue-resident and faecal microbiota, which has implications for the purported therapeutic efficacy of helminths in inflammatory disease.”
  • Effect of Bifidobacterium breve on the Intestinal Microbiota of Coeliac Children on a Gluten Free Diet: A Pilot Study. [2016]
    • ” The comparison between CD subjects and Control group revealed an alteration in the intestinal microbial composition of coeliacs mainly characterized by a reduction of the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, of Actinobacteria and Euryarchaeota. Regarding the effects of the probiotic, an increase of Actinobacteria was found as well as a re-establishment of the physiological Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Therefore, a three-month administration of B. breve strains helps in restoring the healthy percentage of main microbial components.”
  • “Conclusion. The probiotic formula[5 g of VSL#3 twice daily] when taken orally over the 12-week period did not significantly alter the microbiota measured in this population. ” [2016]
  • The Overlap between Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: A Clinical Dilemma [2015].
    • “While the treatment of non-celiac gluten sensitivity is exclusion of gluten from the diet, some, but not all, of the patients with IBS also improve on a gluten-free diet. “
  • Intestinal microbiota modulates gluten-induced immunopathology in humanized mice.[2015]
    • ” Antibiotic treatment, leading to Proteobacteria expansion, further enhanced gluten-induced immunopathology in conventional SPF mice. Protection against gluten-induced immunopathology in clean SPF mice was reversed after supplementation with a member of the Proteobacteria phylum, an enteroadherent Escherichia coli isolated from a CD patient. The intestinal microbiota can both positively and negatively modulate gluten-induced immunopathology in mice. In subjects with moderate genetic susceptibility, intestinal microbiota changes may be a factor that increases CD risk.”
  • Novel players in coeliac disease pathogenesis: role of the gut microbiota [2015].
    • “Several studies point towards alteration in gut microbiota composition and function in coeliac disease, some of which can precede the onset of disease and/or persist when patients are on a gluten-free diet. Evidence also exists that the gut microbiota might promote or reduce coeliac-disease-associated immunopathology. “
  • “Approximately 30% of the general population carry the HLA-DQ2/8 coeliac disease susceptibility genes; however, only 2–5% of these individuals will go on to develop coeliac disease, suggesting that additional environmental factors contribute to disease development.[2010]  “
  • “Specifically, changes in the abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria have been detected in children and adults with active coeliac disease.42,43 Other studies have reported decreases in the proportion of protective, anti-inflammatory bacteria such as Bifidobacterium, and increases in the proportion of Gram-negative bacteria such as Bacteroides and E. coli, in patients with active coeliac disease.4446 Increases in the number of Staphylococcus44,46 and Clostridium,44,47 and decreases in Lactobacillus spp.46,48,49 have also been reported in children with coeliac disease.” [2015]
  • EFFECTS OF PROBIOTIC INTAKE ON INTESTINAL BIFIDOBACTERIA OF CELIAC PATIENTS[2017].
    • “Faecal bifidobacteria concentration before probiotic consumption was significantly higher in healthy individuals (2.3×108±6.3×107 CFU/g) when compared to celiac patients (1.0×107±1.7×107 CFU/g). “
    • “The probiotic supplementation significantly increased the number of bifidobacteria in the feces of celiac patients, although it was not sufficient to reach the concentration found in healthy individuals prior to its consumption.”

Bottom Line

The DNA risk of gluten sensitivity may exist in 30% of the population, however developing gluten sensitivity may be an epigentic event triggered by a shift in bacteria in the microbiome.

You have not become gluten/lactose sensitive — your microbiome has become gluten/lactose sensitive.

Correction of the microbiome shift appears likely to reverse the gluten sensitivity even with a DNA risk factor. We see studies suggesting that some bifidobacteria have a positive effect. Lactobacillus containing VSL#3 does not appear to be effective.  We do not know which families or strains are the problem (too high or too low is unclear).

The Dilemma: Going on a Gluten free diet does alter the microbiome. Does this change make it easier or harder to return to a healthy microbiome? Yes, it helps with symptom relief … but…

  • “A number of taxon-specific differences were seen during the gluten-free diet: the most striking shift was seen for the family Veillonellaceae (class Clostridia), which was significantly reduced during the intervention (p = 2.81 × 10(-05)). Seven other taxa also showed significant changes; the majority of them are known to play a role in starch metabolism. We saw stronger differences in pathway activities: 21 predicted pathway activity scores showed significant association to the change in diet. ” [2016]

Frustrated with no results from Probiotics

A frustrated reader wrote

“Hi, Ken. I am diagnosed with CFS, FM, MCS, LYME DISEASE and I am celiac. I have read your article about taking lactobacillus and CFS. However, in my case I have very low lactobacillus and can not raise them. I also have high clostridium species  but not clostridium difficile . I have done several treatments based on antibiotics selective only for the intestine – intestinal dysfunction.  I am not having results with suppositories based on natural herbal extracts that a naturopath friend from Germany brings me.

I’m still the same. I have taken probiotics only with lactobacillus -Ther Biotic Factor 1- and now I am with ther- Biotic complete. I would like to know your opinion. I have been testing different probiotics for 5 years without any results. A million thanks”

To start, supplementing with lactobacillus probiotics will not cause your lactobacillus to increase. Most lactobacillus probiotics do not take up residency. They will just hang around for a few hours and be gone — see this post for studies. This issue is made more complex because while they are in your system for a few hours, they will also be killing off bacteria families that you are low in.

You have to encourage the remnants of your own lactobacillus to grow.  There are several ways that may be needed:

  • [ROTATE] Killing off the bacteria that kills off the Lactobacillus…  At present, I would suggest as a (gentle) starting point:
  • [CONTINUOUS] Providing suitable foods (that we know are missing in CFS patients because the bacteria producing these metabolites have been devastated)
    • B-12, Methylcobalamin – 1000 mcg/day
    •  CoQ10   300mg/day – ideally with a few ounces of Grapefruit juice.
    • B9 as Folinic Acid (the bioactive form) 1000 mcg/day
    • Personal Note: After doing the above post, I started taking precisely what was suggested. While fully recovered from CFS, I had residue severe psoriasis on my heels with very deep cracks. Within two weeks, the cracks disappeared and the heels have been growing healthier every week.
      • WARNING: Some people can respond with severe anxiety, see this external post.
    • Vitamin D3 – 15,000 IU/day see this post for it’s impact on Vitamin B production
  • [ROTATE] Population by probiotics known to take up residency (and thus can start making the environment friendlier to lactobacillus)
    • E.Coli probiotics are my first choice.
      • Mutaflor – a comment reads “After trying a number of suggested supplements, I wasn’t expecting much but mutaflor resulted in a complete symptom remission in only 3 days with no herx reaction. I thought I was cured but, sadly, after about a month mutaflor’s effectiveness dropped to almost nothing.
      • Symbioflor 2: see this post for some readers’ experience
    • Bifidobacterium probiotics (with no lactobacillus) see this post for what’s available and relative costs

My model is simple to understand: “There is a shift across dozen of bacteria families — the shifted (bad) families cross support each other making it hard to undo. Some item X may reduce 90% of dominant (bad) species, resulting in apparent remission — but the remaining 10% become resistant and slowly regrow — resulting in a relapse. You have to slowly repopulate across multiple good bacteria families until they are able to keep the bad bactera in control (ideally evict them).”

This means that you need to keep rotating herbs, spices, probiotics, antibiotics, at least every two weeks (every week is fine!). The 10% that survived week#1 are unlikely to survive a different antibacterial that uses a different mechanism. You may be down to 1% — but 1% can still regrow… so it is constant rotation even after symptoms disappears. You may later go to one week on and 1-2 weeks off; keeping a close monitor on symptoms.  Mutations will cause resistance constantly — thus you must keep ahead of the mutations by constant changing of antibacterials.

Bottom Line

I do not have a treatment plan or a protocol.  I have a model. I also consolidate clinical results from PubMed.  My goal is to just provide a list of candidate substances to try (in discussion with your knowledgeable medical provider) which are more likely to help than randomly trying things.  These candidate substances are also consistent with the model, for example —

  • Low B12 –> no/low Lactobacillus Reuteri (which produces B12) –> verified from lab results
  • Low B9 –> no/low Bifidobacteria (which produces B9) –> verified from lab results
  • Low Vitamin D3 –> low production of B vitamins

Traditional Resins/Gums

Many gums or resins from trees have favorable profiles. One of my favorite is greek mastic gum which you can buy raw and chews just like a gum. It reduces bacteria in the mouth and do a ton of healthful things. I have a strong preference to medications that have been used successfully for thousands of years over newly developed drugs with unknown risks for long term use, and sometime short term use.

“The Jerusalem Balsam, a remedy based on an ethanolic extract of a herbal mixture, was formulated in 1719 in the pharmacy of the Saint Savior monastery in the old city of Jerusalem… one of the formulas, found in a manuscript form in the archive of the monastery, contains four plants: olibanum (Boswellia spp.), myrrh (Commiphora spp.), aloe (Aloe sp.) and mastic (Pistacia lentiscus L.). We conducted pharmacological assays on this four-plant formula. It showed anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-oxidative, and anti-septic properties.” [The Jerusalem Balsam: from the Franciscan Monastery in the old city of Jerusalem to Martindale 33. 2005]

Also see:  Medieval Pharmacotherapy Continuity and Change Case Studies from Ibn Sına and some of his Late Medieval Commentators [2009 – Full Book 815 pages]

“The most promising plant and herbal products [for inflammatory bowel disease] were tormentil extracts, wormwoodherb, Aloe vera, germinated barley foodstuff, curcumin, Boswellia serrata, Panax notoginseng, Ixeris dentata, green tea, Cordia dichotoma, Plantago lanceolata, Iridoidglycosides, and mastic gum. ” [2016]

  • The most important clinical trials conducted [ in inflammatory bowel disease] so far refer to the use of mastic gum, tormentil extracts, wormwood herb, aloe veratriticum aestivum, germinated barley foodstuff, and boswellia serrata. …boswellia serrata gum resin and plantago ovata seeds were as effective as mesalazine, ” [2015]
  • “Taken together, allergic reactions to Christmas tree, poinsettia, Christmas cactus, perfumed candles, Christmas typical food, common gifts like mobile phones and laptops, frankincense, myrrh and pollens have been described but in very rare instances. ” [Christmas from an allergist’s perspective 2016].

The “tear form” which is chewed like gum (unlike powder in capsules) and then swallowed have several advantages:

  • Reduce bacteria in the mouth (a likely reserve of bacteria that may repopulate the gut) and greatly improve mouth health!
  • Allows the active compounds to enter the body via the sublingual route
  • Impacts the entire digestive system.

The first question many people may have is “Where do I get these tears?”. I recently discovered an Online shop in Greece that sells all of these tears: YouHerbIt.

Suggested use: Use one for a week and then rotate to the next.

Mastic Gum

mastic

Boswellia Serrata/Frankincense gum resin [Commiphora…]

boswellia

“The gum resin of Boswellia serrata (BS), a traditional treatment of Ayurvedic medicine in India also identified as Indian frankincense, Salai Guggal, or Indian olibanum, has been used for centuries as a remedy for many health problems [1996].”

Myrrh Gum [Commiphora… ]

Chromium and Conjugated Linoleic Acid

On one of the facebook groups I followed, a member indicated remission/major improvement and gave some details in a post.

  • ” Well it went better than I expected as I discovered a little known gem that resolved ALL of my metabolic related issues in 1 month and I felt GREAT!!”

When some reports come across my screen, I like to explore them to see if there is a sound basis for improvement (or a RISK to others). It may work for a small group of patients, but not for most. Alternatively, there may be a risk to the pocket book (i.e. someone indirectly/cleverly selling something).

The Magic?

“1,000 mcg a day [of chromium picolinate] is the magic number not 600. Combine the chromium with CLA [Conjugated Linoleic Acid]”

Chromium Picolinate

Some risks at 1000 mcg, low risk — but for the sake of full disclosure.

  • “The only adverse effects of chromium picolinate I’ve read about occurred in isolated cases. In one, a woman who took 1,200 to 2,400 mcg daily over four to five months developed kidney failure and impaired liver function. In another, kidney failure occurred five months after taking 600 mcg of chromium picolinate daily for six weeks. And, a healthy 24 year old man reportedly developed reversible, acute renal failure after two weeks on a supplement that contained chromium picolinate as the main ingredient.” [Dr.Weill]
  • “Chromium is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth, short-term. Up to 1000 mcg/day of chromium has been used safely for up to 6 months.

    Chromium is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth for longer periods of time. Chromium has been used safely in a small number of studies using doses of 200-1000 mcg daily for up to 2 years. Some people experience side effects such as skin irritation, headaches, dizziness, nausea, mood changes and impaired thinking, judgment, and coordination. High doses have been linked to more serious side effects including blood disorders, liver or kidney damage, and other problems. It is not known for sure if chromium is the actual cause of these side effects.” [WebMd]

CFS/IBS/FM

Only a single significant reference, but an interesting one!

  • “The low Nickel (Ni) diet induced a significant and constant improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms and an equally significant improvement of visual analogue scale [in IBS]. Mean urinary output of ⁵¹Chromium ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetate (⁵¹Cr-EDTA) was 5.91%/24 hr (± 2.08), significantly different from the control group (2.20%/24 hr ± 0.60, P < 0.0001).”
  • What to avoid in the low Nickel Diet is described in this PubMed article [2013]. The items to avoid are also the items in the Mediterranean Diet. Ugh. This article does mention “Vitamin C, orange juice, tea, coffee, milk inhibit nickel absorption in human[34]” As a side note, the shift of diet would induce a microbiome shift — so it may not be nickel that’s the issue, rather nickel is incidental (right treatment — wrong attribution).

Microbiome

Coagulation

  • “Sodium chromate inhibits platelet function in vitro. ” [1970]

General

  • “Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression.” [2015] This list matches the pattern that I am advocating for CFS, implying that chromium is a reasonable choice.
  • Chromium supplementation for adjuvant treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Results from a pooled analysis.[2017]
    • “notably favorable effects were presented in T2DM subjects ingesting chromium chloride and chromium picolinate formulations.”
  • NON-PHARMACEUTICAL INTERVENTION OPTIONS FOR TYPE 2 DIABETES: Diets and Dietary Supplements (Botanicals, Antioxidants, and Minerals)[2014].
    chrom
    • this meta-analysis of RCTs showed no effect of chromium on glucose or insulin concentrations in non-diabetic subjects, and data for persons with diabetes are inconclusive.”
    • “these studies suggest that the form of chromium influences the study results, and that the picolinate form provides greater efficacy”
    • ” recent study has found that chromium picolinate (500 and 1000 μg daily for 6 months) was ineffective at reducing HbA1c in obese, poorly-controlled, insulin-dependent individuals with T2D”

Conjugated Linoleic Acid

CFS/IBS/FM

  • “Dietary CLA-supplementation upregulated colonic PPAR gamma expression and contributed to delaying the onset of experimental Irritable Bowel Disease “
  • “Supplementation of CLA in the diet before the induction of colitis decreased mucosal damage” [2002]

Microbiome

Coagulation

  • “the blood-clotting parameters and in vitro platelet aggregation showed that adding 3.9 g/d of dietary CLA to a typical Western diet for 63 d produces no observable physiological change in blood coagulation and platelet function in healthy adult females. Short-term consumption of CLA does not seem to exhibit antithrombotic properties in humans.” [2001]

Bottom Line

Taking B12 supplements because of low/no Lactobacillus Reuteri  in CFS Patients (the producer of B12 in humans) improves CFS symptoms. Since CLA is produced by bifidobacteria (also low in CFS patients), supplementing with CLA may have similar benefits for CFS Symptoms. Unfortunately, there are no studies testing this in actual patients. I would give CLA as a thumbs-up as a potential supplement without clear evidence (but no apparent risk).

Chromium supplementation is much trickier because there is a low risk factor involved. If you are diabetic or pre-diabetic, consult with your MD. There is no clear evidence that it  will help (nor that it would hurt). I have no recommendation on this.