Neuroinflammation is defined by Wikipedia as “inflammation of the nervous tissue. It may be initiated in response to a variety of cues, including infection, traumatic brain injury, toxic metabolites, or autoimmunity.[2 “
Neuroinflammation is defined as an inflammatory response within the brain or spinal cord. This inflammation is mediated by the production of cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen species, and secondary messengers. These mediators are produced by resident CNS glia (microglia and astrocytes), endothelial cells, and peripherally derived immune cells. There are immune, physiological, biochemical, and psychological consequences of these neuroinflammatory responses. Moreover, the degree of neuroinflammation depends on the context, duration, and course of the primary stimulus or insult (Figure 1)Neuroinflammation: The Devil is in the Details 
In terms of ME/CFS where stress is a very common cause/contributor
- “the response to chronic or traumatic stressors. Traumatic or chronic stressors appear to promote a more neuroinflammatory profile that involves both resident microglia and bone marrow-derived macrophages (Wohleb et al. 2014a) ”  Which leads to removal of chronic stress as a key treatment choice (sometimes called, re-adjusting expectations or giving the finger to those with high expectations of you!)
- “Neuroinflammation is present in widespread brain areas in CFS/ME patients and was associated with the severity of neuropsychologic symptoms.” 
For more technical details, read the article cited above.
I would also advocate bookmarking the Journal of Neuroinflammation
- ” Chronic noise exposure is associated with neuroinflammation and gut microbiota dysregulation ”  – move to the country
- Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontitis causing bacterium, induces memory impairment and age-dependent neuroinflammation in mice.
Neuroinflammation and the Microbiome
Review studies on pubmed we find:
- These findings indicated that Clostridium butyricum [probiotic] treatment could attenuate microglia-mediated neuroinflammation via regulating the GM-gut-brain axis, which was mediated by the metabolite butyrate. 
- Oral Administration of the Probiotic Strain Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 Reduces Susceptibility to Neuroinflammation and Repairs Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis-Induced Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction. 
- Alcohol shifts gut microbial networks and ameliorates a murine model of neuroinflammation in a sex-specific pattern.  ” Surprisingly, alcohol-fed males experienced significantly greater disease remission compared to alcohol-fed females and control-fed counterparts. “
- Bee pollen and propolis improve neuroinflammation and dysbiosis induced by propionic acid, a short chain fatty acid in a rodent model of autism. 
- ” the first report about the immunomodulatory effect of the common nutrient, capsaicin [a.k.a. Chili Peppers] ” 
- Paricalcitol alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior by suppressing hypothalamic microglia activation and neuroinflammation. 
- Combating Neurodegenerative Diseases with the Plant Alkaloid Berberine: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Potential. 
- Resolving neuroinflammation, the therapeutic potential of the anti-malaria drug family of artemisinin.  a.k.a. Wormwood
- Regulation of neuroinflammation by herbal medicine and its implications for neurodegenerative diseases. A focus on traditional medicines and flavonoids.  Full text
There are many items that will help with reducing neuroinflammation. In terms of priorities, removing contributors should be a high priority. “Plug the hole in the dyke, do not send for more buckets!” This likely include some significant items:
- Removal of personal stress (letting go, ” Que Sera, Sera -what will be, will be”)
- Removal of environment stress
- Work on oral health
All of these can be challenging. For me, we have moved to 25 acres in the country, local organic food, no work email on my phone or home computer, blocked all phone numbers except for a few, employer has no issue with my cutting hours as needed – 20% of the staff just work 4 days a week by choice.
A friend is Spain would love to get some of the old rural monasteries or nuneries re-purpose as sanatoriums for ME/CFS people. I very much agree with her — that would be awesome.