Finally! Someone verified the 1999 Studies – Thank you Kenny!

I have been running my Microbiome Hypothesis after a study from 1999 which no one had attempted to replicate for 14 years. Finally in the Anaerobe journal on 18 June 2013, High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals alterations of intestinal microbiota in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome patients confirms that there is a distinct alteration!

Many thanks to


Available online 18 June 2013

In Press, Corrected Proof — Note to users

Cover image
Clinical microbiology

High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals alterations of intestinal microbiota in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome patients 

Open Access Article
  • a R.E.D Laboratories NV, Z-1 Researchpark 100, 1731 Zellik, Belgium
  • b Biostatistics and Medical Informatics Department, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels, Belgium
  • c DNAVision SA, Av. Georges Lemaitre 25, 6041 Gosselies, Belgium
  • d Department of Human Physiology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1051 Brussels, Belgium


We looked for alterations of gut microbiota in chronic fatigue syndrome patients.

Patients and controls from two geographical origins were included in the study.

Gut flora composition differed between people from different geographical origins.

Significant alterations of gut microbiota composition were observed in patients.



Human intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the maintenance of host health by providing energy, nutrients, and immunological protection. Intestinal dysfunction is a frequent complaint in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) patients, and previous reports suggest that dysbiosis, i.e. the overgrowth of abnormal populations of bacteria in the gut, is linked to the pathogenesis of the disease.

We used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to investigate the presence of specific alterations in the gut microbiota of ME/CFS patients from Belgium and Norway. 43 ME/CFS patients and 36 healthy controls were included in the study. Bacterial DNA was extracted from stool samples, PCR amplification was performed on 16S rRNA gene regions, and PCR amplicons were sequenced using Roche FLX 454 sequencer.

The composition of the gut microbiota was found to differ between Belgian controls and Norwegian controls: Norwegians showed higher percentages of specific Firmicutes populations (RoseburiaHoldemania) and lower proportions of most Bacteroidetes genera. A highly significant separation could be achieved between Norwegian controls and Norwegian patients: patients presented increased proportions of Lactonifactor andAlistipes, as well as a decrease in several Firmicutes populations. In Belgian subjects the patient/control separation was less pronounced, however some abnormalities observed in Norwegian patients were also found in Belgian patients.

These results show that intestinal microbiota is altered in ME/CFS. High-throughput sequencing is a useful tool to diagnose dysbiosis in patients and could help designing treatments based on gut microbiota modulation (antibiotics, pre and probiotics supplementation).

<Nag>I hate to say it, but I am already attempting by this blog and blog trying to do just that based on my own experience of going into remission by doing exactly that!</Nag>

The methods need to be improved, bigger sample populations and using tests that identify the specific strains — but it is a start!

We have a Ken and a Kenny on the same page!