A recent article, J. Pickard et al., “Rapid fucosylation of intestinal epithelium sustains host–commensal symbiosis in sickness,” Nature, doi:10.1038/nature13823, 2014. with summary on TheScientist found that the sugar fucose (yes, that is the correct spelling!) may play a major role. TheScientist article title says it well ‘Supporting the “Good” Gut Microbes During systemic infection, mice kick-start the production of a specific sugar to feed and protect the beneficial bacteria in their guts while fighting pathogenic strains.’
- Chervonsky now wants to see how important this fucosylation pathway may be in humans. “About 20 percent of the population is missing the Fut2 gene, and this has been linked to Crohn’s disease.”
- If you have done 23AndMe.com (which I would strongly recommend to any suffers from the above — it costs just $99 and allows you to see if new discoveries, like the Fut2 gene, is a factor for you). Fut2 is connected with Norovirus (aka Cruise Ship Sickness) resistance.
For the bio-Nerds:
“The fractionated fucoidan, especially the F1 fraction, strongly stimulated murine macrophages (Raw 264.7 cells), producing a considerable amount of nitric oxide (NO) and inducing expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) transcripts by activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathways.”  almost all of which are significant for CFS.
We also found a 2001 study reports found that fucose “significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the histamine release induced”
Availability: Looking around on the internet, there appear to be sources for fucose — but at an unreasonable $100 for 1 g🙁 – until you hit Alibaba, http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/fucose.html (Yes, I know it’s China — but the reality is that a lot of supplements you take are made there… at $1 for 2 lbs from some suppliers) There are more suppliers at http://www.chemicalregister.com/D-_+_-FUCOSE/Suppliers/pid93488.htm
- Dosage – unknown I suspect < 1/8 teaspoon
- Safety – no human trials that I could find. Material Safety Sheet provides little information.
WARNING: A reader has subsequently sent a variety of articles documenting that histamines are involved with suppressing TNF-alpha, thus a low histamine diet may make Crohn’s disease worst.