Probiotics Review — July 2017

This is my periodic review of news releases and stories about probiotics.  Probiotics are likely one of our best tools to correct microbiome dysfunction….

  • New players in diagnostics: “A joint venture between microbiome-focused Enterome and Nestlé Health Science will focus on the discovery and commercialisation of innovative diagnostics for a variety of microbiome-related diseases.”[Src]
    • “After a decade of research, Nestlé has developed the first formula for infants with two oligosaccharides identical to those found in breast milk.” [Src]
    • “Researchers in Singapore who have created a probiotic beer are on the lookout for industry partners to launch the product to consumers.” [src]
  • BBC: “Which foods can improve your gut bacteria?” Eating “Jerusalem artichokes, chicory root, onions, garlic and leeks.” beats Yogurt and Kefir!
    • “Whether standard white bread or an artisanal sourdough loaf is “healthier” depends on the microbes living in a person’s intestines, a new study suggests …”[src]
  • “The gut microbiomes of athletes are more diverse than non-athletes, and scientists at Harvard are predicting that new probiotics derived from athletic microbiomes could be hitting the market within two years.” [Src]
  • “155 healthy volunteers who followed omnivorous, ovo-lacto-vegetarian or vegan diets were recruited at four Italian centres (Turin, Parma, Bologna and Bari). Faecal samples were collected; lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were isolated on selective media and their immunomodulatory activity was tested in mouse dendritic cells (DCs). Pre-incubation with lactobacilli increased LPS-induced expression of the maturation markers CD80 and CD86, whereas pre-incubation with bifidobacteria decreased such expression. ” Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins. [2017]
  • “These advances are spawning efforts to develop foods that promote healthy microbiota development during early postnatal life, prevent the loss of microbial diversity associated with Western diets, and repair abnormalities associated with various disease states ( 5 – 8 ). But given the mechanisms by which such microbiota-directed foods (MDFs) may achieve their desired effects, the existing U.S. regulatory framework presents challenges in determining how MDFs should be classified. ” [src]
  • “All humans, animals, and plants are holobionts… We hypothesize that probably every illness of holobionts is characterized by some perturbation of the microbiome/microbiota into a pathobiome. “[Src]
    • ” Specific genera (Veillonella, Neisseria, Rothia, Corynebacterium, and Actinomyces) were highly prevalent (>95%) in health, while other genera (Eubacterium, Campylobacter, Treponema, and Tannerella) were associated with chronic periodontitis. “[src]
    • “Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) symptoms could be reduced by altering gut bacteria makeup, according to a review of more than 150 papers.”[src]
    • “Gut bacteria can stop cancer drugs from working” [src]
  • Antibiotics:
    • “Antibiotic-mediated gut microbiome perturbation accelerates development of type 1 diabetes in mice” [Src]
    • “Exposure to Oral Antibiotics Induces Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis Associated with Lipid Metabolism Dysfunction and Low-Grade Inflammation in Mice” [src]
    • “Live antibiotics use bacteria to kill bacteria ” [src]
      • “The focus of this study was to evaluate the potential use of the predatory bacteria Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus to control the pathogens associated with human infection.” [2010]
  • Weight:
    • “Metabolic endotoxemia originating from dysbiotic gut microbiota has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the chronic low-grade inflammation (CLGI) responsible for the development of obesity. Capsaicin (CAP) is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers and has potent anti-obesity functions, yet the mechanisms linking this effect to gut microbiota remain obscure. Here we show that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with CAP exhibit lower levels of metabolic endotoxemia and CLGI associated with lower body weight gain. “[src]
    • “A new study has identified links between alterations in gut microbial populations and multiple markers of obesity and type 2 diabetes. ” [src]
    • “Dramatic shift in gut microbes and their metabolites seen after weight loss surgery” [src]
    • “A purified membrane protein from Akkermansia muciniphila or the pasteurized bacterium improves metabolism in obese and diabetic mice” [Src]
    • “Aguamiel concentrate from Agave salmiana and its extracted saponins attenuated obesity and hepatic steatosis and increased Akkermansia muciniphila in C57BL6 mice” [src]
    • “Pili-like proteins of Akkermansia muciniphila modulate host immune responses and gut barrier function”[src]
    • “Strategies to promote abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila , an emerging probiotics in the gut, evidence from dietary intervention studies”[Src]
      • Activities of A. muciniphila are associated with the increase of mucus thickness.
      • Viable A. muciniphila and fructooligosaccharides contently promote A. muciniphila.
      • Metformin and vancomycin also significantly promote A. muciniphila.
    • “Supplementation of Diet With Galacto-oligosaccharides Increases Bifidobacteria, but Not Insulin Sensitivity, in Obese Prediabetic Individuals” [src]
  • Probiotics
    • “Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 Reduces Depression Scores and Alters Brain Activity: a Pilot Study in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome” [src]
    • “Danish bioscience firm Chr. Hansen says 100 new strains added to its library could help development of new commercial probiotics for a range of metabolic, immune, and digestive health issues.” [src]
      • Includes Eubacterium Hallii and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii
    • “Growing Literature but Limited Evidence: A Systematic Review regarding Prebiotic and Probiotic Interventions for those with Traumatic Brain Injury and/or Posttraumatic Stress Disorder”[src]
  • “Sensory cells of the mouse intestine let the brain know if certain compounds are present by speaking directly to gut neurons via serotonin.”[src]