Probiotics Review June 2017

  • Epigenetics:
    • “Little is known about how micronutrient deficiencies affect the human gut microbiota. A study by Hibberd et al. illustrates how these deficiencies affect the composition and function of gut microbiota, and further, how different species realize changes in gene expression and cellular metabolism to cope with micronutrient shortages”[Src] Connecting gene expression to bacteria (epigenetics impacted by bacteria)
    • ” In particular, bacterial-derived short chain fatty acids have emerged as one clear link between how the microbiota intersects with host epigenomic pathways. Here we review recent findings describing crosstalk between the microbiota and epigenomic pathways in multiple mammalian cell populations. “[2017]
  • Brain:
    • “Cognitive impairment by antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis: Analysis of gut microbiota-brain communication” [src]
    • “For people with IBS research shows for the first time that there is an association between the gut microbiota and the brain regions involved in the processing of sensory information from their bodies. The results suggest that signals generated by the brain can influence the composition of microbes residing in the intestine and that the chemicals in the gut can shape the human brain’s structure.” [src]
    • “Transplantation of fecal microbiota from patients with irritable bowel syndrome alters gut function and behavior in recipient mice” [src]
    • “clinical (low) doses of penicillin to pregnant mice and their offspring results in long-term behavioural changes. These changes include elevated levels of aggression and lower levels of anxiety, accompanied by characteristic neurochemical changes in the brain” [src]
  • Probiotics:
    • “Unraveling the Differences between Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Probiotics in Modulating Protective Immunity to Enteric Infections”[src] “Lactobacilli spp. and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 are two probiotics that are commonly used in children to treat various medical conditions including human rotavirus diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease. Although the health benefits of probiotics have been confirmed, the specific effects of these established Gram-positive (G+) and Gram-negative (G−) probiotics in modulating immunity against pathogens and disease are largely undefined…These probiotics modulate the pathogenesis of infectious diseases and protective immunity against pathogens in a species- and strain-specific manner. “
    • “The leading probiotics currently available to consumers are generally drawn from a narrow range of organisms. Knowledge of the gut microbiota and its constituent actors is changing this paradigm, particularly given the phylogenetic range and relatively unknown characteristics of the organisms under investigation as novel therapeutics. For this reason, and because their development is likely to be more amenable to a pharmaceutical than a food delivery route, these organisms are often operationally referred to as next-generation probiotics, a concept that overlaps with the emerging concept of live biotherapeutic products. The latter is a class of organisms developed exclusively for pharmaceutical application. ” [src]
    • “Lactobacillus parafarraginis metabolites hindered the growth of multiple, distantly related bacterial pathogens.”[src]
    • Update studies of Probiotics with Evidence available in the US and Canada. [Site] Download PROBIOTIC GUIDE mobile app for free
      Google Play
      App Store [NOTE There are US and Canada versions — download appropriate one (or both)]
      • NOTE: If your favorite probiotic is NOT listed — it is because the strains are unknown and thus it lacks any scientific evidence.
  • “New study in mice shows gut microbes are a driver of age-associated inflammation “[src]
  • “The gut microbiota can influence immune-cell function by the production of short-chain fatty acids. Mackay and colleagues show that diets enriched for acetate and butyrate protect non-obese diabetic mice from insulitis and diabetes progression.” [src]
  • “Intense exercise damages gut bacteria and increases health risks'[src]
  • Disease:
    • “However, a marked decrease in the total diversity of microbial communities, an over-representation of Proteobacteria and an under-representation of Actinobacteria has been observed in lesional skin from psoriasis patients compared to corresponding non-lesional skin from the same individual.” [src]
    • Giardiasis may be a disease of the ecology of the GI tract.
      Colonization by the human and animal parasite, Giardia, changed the species composition of the mouse microbiome in a way that might be harmful. “This shift is generally characterized by more aerobic bacteria and less diversity of anaerobic species” [src]
    • “The long-term dynamic behaviour of the gut microbiome in inflammatory bowel disease demonstrates increased deviation from the ‘healthy plane’ when compared to the normal variation observed in healthy individuals.” [src] – the longer you have it, the worst the shift gets
    • “Researchers report introducing probiotics help reduce yeast infections in men with schizophrenia. “[src]
    • “Accumulating evidence suggests that abnormalities in the composition of the gut microbiota may play a role in the pathogenesis of depression. ” [src]
    • “reater richness in Campylobacteraceae (P = 0.0003), Neisseriaceae (P = 0.0115), Methylobacteriaceae (P = 0.0004), Sphingomonadaceae (P = 0.0221), and Enterobacteriaceae (P = 0.0451) was found in patients with complicated acute viral gastroenteritis  compared with normal controls. The data suggest a significant reduction in intestinal microbial diversity in patients with severe acute viral gastroenteritis , particularly those with rotavirus infection. ” [src]
    • “Bacterial residents of the human body often provide beneficial effects, but some can be harmful. The action of gut bacteria has been found to be tightly linked to neurodegeneration in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease.”
    • “Alterations in the Microbiome Are Associated with Changes in Bone Quality” [src]
  • “Breast Milk Contributes Significantly to Babies’ Bacteria “[src]
  • “Women who have unprotected sex with men seem to have more bad types of bacteria in their vaginas, which may make them more prone to infection and disease” [src]
  • “A diet rich in whole grains may lead to modest improvements in gut microbiota and immune response in healthy adults”[src]
  • “The gut microbes of young killifish can extend the lifespans of older fish – hinting at the microbiome’s role in ageing. It may not be the most appetizing way to extend life but researchers have shown for the first time that older fish live longer after they consumed microbes from the poo of younger fish.” [src]